PC-CREAM 08® is an application for performing radiological impact assessments of routine, continuous discharges of radionuclides to the environment. PC-CREAM 08® is used to estimate individual and collective doses arising from discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments. It is particularly useful for performing prospective assessments as a key input to discharge authorisations and waste management decisions.
PC-CREAM can only be used to assess the radiological impact of discharges of radionuclides to the environment if it can be assumed that these discharges are continuous and constant. PC-CREAM can not be used to model short duration releases unless these occur with sufficient frequency that they can be approximated to a continuous release.
A site is considering two disposal options both of which include the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The radionuclide quantities discharged each year from each of 5 discharge stacks for the two disposal options are defined. The effective height of each stack is known, as are the meteorological conditions, and the location and habits of the local inhabitants.
This information can be used in PC-CREAM 08 to assess and compare the annual effective dose to the local inhabitants, received following discharge over a number of years for the two disposal options. In addition, the collective dose to the wider population can be assessed. A breakdown of the dose as a function of exposure pathway, radionuclide and time is available.
A new nuclear reactor which will discharge radionuclides into the sea is planned for the UK coast. The proposed discharges from the site need to be authorised by demonstrating that doses to individuals representing the most exposed members of the local population are within acceptable limits and constraints.
The new site can be set up in PC-CREAM 08 by identifying its location and characterising the marine environment into which the discharge occurs. The location and habits of the individuals under consideration can be used, in conjunction with estimates of activity concentrations in the marine environment, to assess the effective dose received as a function of exposure pathway, radionuclide and time. Estimates of the collective dose to the UK and other EC countries can also be made.
PC-CREAM 08 may be used to estimate doses from past discharges either in the absence of environmental measurements or to supplement them. Typically, useful measurement data of activity concentrations in the environment may be unavailable because levels are below limits of detection.
PC-CREAM 08 can predict activity concentrations, and doses, as a function of time when the annual discharge remains constant year after year. PC-CREAM 08 cannot yet be used to predict doses from historical discharges that vary each year.
It may be useful to compare model estimates of environmental activity concentrations with measurements. This may be a useful indicator that the levels of environmental concentrations are reasonable for the known discharge levels. Large discrepancies between models and measurements may indicate that estimates of discharge levels are incorrect and need to be reviewed. .
PC-CREAM 08 can be used to assess the radiological impact of discharges of radionuclides to the environment when it can be assumed that these discharges are continuous and constant. PC-CREAM 08® can be used to model short duration releases when these occur with sufficient frequency that they can be approximated to a continuous release.
ASSESSOR: Once activity concentrations in environmental media have been calculated using the various models they can be used in ASSESSOR, the dose assessment part of PC-CREAM 08 to calculate effective doses.
There are five parts of ASSESSOR to calculate individual and collective doses from discharges to the atmosphere and sea and individual doses from discharges into rivers. Each part of ASSESSOR displays all the model runs that are available for use including the default set.
The results of these models are combined with actual discharge rates, site specific data, habit data and dose coefficients to calculate effective doses for various exposure pathways.
|PLUME||The atmospheric dispersion model|
|RESUS||Estimate activity concentrations in air arising from the resuspension of previously deposited radionuclides|
|GRANIS||Models the external gamma dose from radionuclides deposited on the soil|
|FARMLAND||Predicts activity concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial foods|
|DORIS||The marine dispersion model|
|River models||Two models for calculating the dispersion of radionuclides released to rivers|
Find out more about the models used in PC-CREAM 08 ®